The Way of Life and Local Food Security in the Southern Part
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The purpose of this research is to study the way of life and the food security of the people in the southern part of Thailand in various issues, namely the existence of food, food access and food utilization in order to describe the characteristics of local food security in the southern part of Thailand. It is the mixed research of both quantitative and qualitative. Tools used for the research are the questionnaires, the interviews and the participating observation. The research can be summarized as follows:- 1. Food and food resource management : It is found that most of the local people in the south purchase food at the market, and usually buy fresh food 2-3 times a week and once a week for dried food. The foods that are mostly purchased are fresh meat. Each purchase costs below 500 baht. As for the planting, the local people cultivate fruits and vegetables around their homes. The main purpose of this cultivation is for consumption among families. The resources of the seeds are mainly from purchasing. As for the farming, chickens are mostly fed naturally for eggs. Most of the species derive from purchasing. As for the collection from natural resources, it is found out that the local people consume every part of the plants which are collected at each seasonal period of time of such plant. In the mean time, sharing food is considered as the way of life of the south people. They usually share their foods at least once a week whenever they have raw materials for making food. They will share their food with their senior relatives and neighbors. As for the consumption pattern, the local people usually eat 3 times a day, each meal covers 3 dishes of food, the main dish is the evening meal as all members of the family are joining together. In each day they consume all of 5 categories of food. As for the food preservation and processing, the local people usually make it dry. In term of food management, they have their own ways by planting or replacing other food resources. Moreover, they believe that the foods available in the area are sufficient for consumption in their daily lives. This may result from the appropriate food management such as the plan for food resource preparation each day to serve for all members of the family and the sufficiency economy principle. 2. The Existence of food : A variety of foods are available at the south. Having various types of food resources are regarded as the culinary treasures which guarantee food security. Food resources such as vegetables and fishes are those that are sufficient for consumption in the area, however, some have decreased i.e. wild animals, some plants and some fishes that cause changes in ecology which are caused by human beings and nature. 3. The access of food and food resources of the local people in the south. : 4 types of food access consist of planting, collecting from nature, purchasing, and sharing. The places to purchase food include the market, fair market, mobile market, and the production resources. The consumers can purchase any of these resources as they prefer. In terms of the cultivation, they are mostly vegetables and fruits which are planted around their homes for consumption. As for the collection from nature, they mostly collected in the area nearby outside their homes. As for the access to natural resources, it is found out that the local people usually share their food as normal habits. 4. Food utilization : The local people manage food and food resources by making use of their knowledge, talents, and skills in food resources management in their daily lives. They usually use raw materials in producing consumer goods for living such as food and medicines which are the most important of all products. The local people generally cook for themselves by making use of food resources for their meals. The techniques being used include boiling, crushing, frying, steaming, roasting etc. Most of those who cook are housewives who recognize that the nutrients contain in food are essential for their families. If they have plenty of food resources, they will make food preservation and processing. The main reason why the local people make their own dishes is because they prefer to depend on themselves and they need food safety. Most of all, the local people make use of the principle “Sufficiency Economy” of His Majesty the King Bhumipol to lead their lives.
- Research Report